Measurement of PM10, PM2.5 and Black Carbon and Assessment of Their Health Effects in Agra, A Semiarid Region of India
The present study assesses the health effects of PM10, PM2.5 and Black Carbon (BC) in Agra, a semiarid region in India. The average mass concentrations of PM10, PM2.5 and Black Carbon are found to be 157.1 µg m-3, 86.4 µg m-3 and 6.4 µg m-3, respectively. The highest concentrations of PM10 has been seen in summer followed by winter, post-monsoon and monsoon while the highest concentrations of PM2.5 have been found in winter followed by post-monsoon, summer and monsoon. The variation in the concentration may be due to the combined effect of atmospheric conditions, local emissions as well as long-range transport. The mean ratio of PM2.5/PM10 was 0.37 and ranged from 0.13-0.78. It signifies the fact that the coarse mode particle dominates over fine mode particles in this region. The percentage fraction of biomass, fossil fuel, PM2.5/PM10, BC/PM2.5 and others contributes 7.2%, 27.2%, 17.5%, 12.8%, and 34.8%, respectively. The percentage contribution of Black Carbon (BC) in PM2.5 is 9%. The exceedance factor is found to be more than 1.5 for PM10 and PM2.5 which indicates the critical level of pollution load in Agra region. The population weighted concentration of PM10 is 3.2 µg m-3, PM2.5 is 1.7 µg m-3 and BC is 1.4 µg m-3. The relative risk factors analysis representing within the study site indicates the particulate matter from local combustion sources as the cause of more premature deaths. The attributed mortality rate from PM2.5 due to Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD), lung cancer and stroke in adult (30 years and above) is 6029, 5276 and 6062, respectively while attributed mortality rate from PM10 due to chronic bronchitis in adult and bronchitis in children is 11776 and 9873 and respectively.
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