Population Assessment and Habitat Distribution Modelling of High Value Corylus jacquemontii for in situ Conservation in the State of Himachal Pradesh, India

Population assessment and Habitat Distribution Modelling of Corylus jacquemontii

  • Shiv Paul https://orcid.org/0000-0003-2320-4236
  • S. S. Samant G.B. Pant National Institute of Himalayan Environment & Sustainable Development, Himachal Regional Centre, Mohal, Kullu
  • Manohar Lal
  • Jeet Ram
Keywords: Corylus jacquemontii; Population Assessment; Habitat Distribution Model; Multipurpose; Conservation; Himachal Pradesh, India


Corylus jacquemontii Decne. is one of the ecologically and economically important high value multipurpose tree in Indian Himalaya Region. Continued over-exploitation and habitat degradation of the species for fodder, fuel, food and medicinal purposes have caused rapid depletion from natural habitats. Therefore, twenty five populations of the C. jacquemontii were assessed in Lahaul & Spiti, Kinnaur, Chamba and Kullu districts of Himachal Pradesh. Soil sampled from each population and analyzed. The density of the species was highest in dry slope habitat. Total tree density had a significant positive correlation with organic carbon of soil (r=0.42, P˂ 0.05 and n=25). C. jacquemontii seedling density had significant negative correlation with altitude (r =-0.43, P˂0.05 and n=25) and pH (r=-0.60, P˂0.05 and n=50). Most of the populations had poor regeneration of species. MaxEnt Entopy model predicted 3300 Km2 suitable area for reintroduction of species in Himachal Pradesh. Precipitation of driest peroid emerged as a major factor in determining the distribution of potential habitats of C. jacquemontii. Therefore, mass multiplication using seed germination protocol, their establishment in identified habitats and regular monitoring of the habitats with the active participation of local inhabitants, Non-Government Organizations (NGOs) and Forest Department are essentially required.


Adhikari D, Barik S K and Upadhaya K (2012) Habitat distribution modelling for reintroduction of Ilex khasiana Purk., a critically endangered tree species of northeastern India. Ecol Eng 40 37-43
Adhikari D, Reshi Z, Datta B K, Samant S S, Chettri A, Upadhaya K, Shah M A, Singh P P, Tiwary R, Majumdar K and Pradhan A (2018) Inventory and characterization of new populations through ecological niche modelling improve threat assessment. Curr Sci 114(3) 519-531
Allen S E (1974) Chemical Analysis of Ecological Materials. Blackwell Scientific Publications, Oxford London
Aswal B S and Mehrotra B N (1994) Flora of Lahaul-Spiti, a cold desert in northwest Himalaya. Bishen Singh Mahendra Pal Singh Dehra Dun India
Banerjee A, Devi M, Nag A, Sharma R K and Kumar A (2017) Modelling Probable Distribution of Podophyllum hexandrum in North-Western Himalaya. Ind For 143(12)1255-1259
Barik S K and Adhikari D (2012) Predicting the geographical distribution of an invasive species (Chromolaena odorata L. (King) & HE Robins) in the Indian subcontinent under climate change scenarios. Invasive alien plants: an ecological appraisal for the Indian subcontinent, pp 77-88
Brandis D (1924) The Forest flora of North-West and Central India (Delhi, India: Periodical Experts Book Agency), p 494
Chauhan P P, Nigam A and Santvan V K (2014) Ethnobotanical survey of trees in Pabbar Valley, Distt. Shimla, Himachal Pradesh. Life Sci Leafl 52 24-39
Cheng D and Xu L (2015) Predicting the potential distributions of Senecio vulgaris L. in China. Peer J Pre Prints, doi.org/10.7287/peerj.preprints.1612v1
Chowdhery H J and Wadhwa B M (1984) Flora of Himachal Pradesh, Analysis. Botanical Survey of India Howrah
Colacicco-Mayhugh M G, Masuoka P M and Grieco J P (2010) Ecological niche model of Phlebotomus alexandri and P. papatasi (Diptera: Psychodidae) in the Middle East. Intern J Health Geograph 9 (1) 2. doi.org/10.1186/1476-072X-9-2
Curtis J T and Mc Intosh (1950) The interrelation of certain analytic and phytosociological characters. Ecology 31 434-455
Dhaliwal D S and Sharma M (1999) Flora of Kullu District (Himachal Pradesh). Bishen Singh Mahendra Pal Singh Dehra Dun India
Dhar U, Rawal R S and Samant S S (1997) Structural diversity and representativeness of forest vegetation in a protected area of Kumaun Himalaya, India. Implications for conservation. Biodivers Conserv 6 1045-1062
Elith J, Graham C H, Anderson R P, Dudık M, Ferrier S, Guisan A, Hijmans R J, Huettmann F, Leathwick J R, Lehmann A, Li J, Lohmann L G, Loiselle B A, Manion G, Moritz C, Nakamura M, Nakazawa Y, Overton J McC, Peterson A T, Phillips S J, Richardson K S, Scachetti-Pereira R, Schapire R E, Soberon J, Williams S, Wisz M S and Zimmermann N E (2006) Novel methods improve prediction of species’ distributions from occurrence data. Ecography 29 129-151
Faller J, Gan D, Hines M and Mangos L (2010) Magnolia extract containing compositions. U.S. Patent No. 7,744,932. U.S. Patent and Trademark Office Washington DC
Gaur R D (1999) Flora of the District Garhwal, North West Himalaya. Transmedia Srinagar Garhwal India
Gaur R D (2008) Traditional dye yielding plants of Uttarakhand, India. Nat Prod Rad 7(2) 154-165
Greig-Smith P (1957) Quantitative Plant Ecology. Academic Press New York
Guisan A and Thuiller W (2005) Predicting species distribution, offering more than simple habitat models. Ecol lett 8 (9) 993-1009
Hijmans R J, Cameron S E, Parra J L, Jones P G and Jarvis A (2005) Very high resolution interpolated climate surfaces for global land areas. Int J Climatol 25 1965-1978
Jackson M L (1958) Soil chemical analysis. Prentice-Hall Inc. Englewood Cliffs
Jaryan V, Datta A, Uniyal S K, Kumar A, Gupta R C and Singh R D (2013) Modelling potential distribution of Sapium sebiferum—an invasive tree species in Western Himalaya. Curr Sci India 105 (9) 1282-1287
Joshi HC, Samant SS (2004) Assessment of forest vegetation and prioritization of communities for conservation in a part of Nanda Devi Biosphere Reserve, West Himalaya, India. Int J Sust Dev World 11 326-336
Kershaw K A (1973) Quantitative and Dynamic Plant Ecology. 2nd edn. Edward Arnold Limited London
Kuzovkina Y A and Volk T A (2009) The characterization of willow (Salix L.) varieties for use in ecological engineering applications: co-ordination of structure, function and autecology. Ecol Eng 35 (8)1178-1189
Lal M and Samant SS (2017) Niche Modeling: an approach to predict habitats for conservation of Hippophae species in Trans and North Western Himalaya. Int J Sci Nat 8(3) 437-446
Merow C, Smith M J and Silander J A (2013) A practical guide to MaxEnt for modeling species’ distributions, what it does, and why inputs and settings matter. Ecography 36 (10) 1058-1069
Misra R (1968) Ecological Work Book. Oxford and IBH Publishing Company Calcutta India
Mueller-Dombois D and Ellenberge H (1974) Aims and methods of vegetation ecology. John Willey and Sons New York
Olsen S R (1954) Estimation of available phosphorus in soils by extraction with sodium bicarbonate. United States Department of Agriculture Washington
Ortega-Huerta MA and Peterson AT (2008) Modeling ecological niches and predicting geographic distributions, a test of six presence-only methods. Rev Mex Biodivers 79 205-216
Pangtey Y P S, Samant S S and Rawat G S (1988) Contribution to the flora of Pithoragarh district, Kumaun Himalaya. Himal Res Dev 7 24-46
Pant S and Samant S S (2007) Assessment of plant diversity and prioritization of communities for conservation in Mornaula Reserve Forest. Appl Ecol Env Res 5 (2) 123-138
Phillips S J and Dudík M (2008) Modeling of species distributions with Maxent: new extensions and a comprehensive evaluation. Ecography 31(2) 161-175
Phillips SJ, Anderson RP and Schapire RE (2006) Maximum entropy modeling of species geographic distributions. Ecol Model 190(3) 231-259
Polak T and Saltz D (2011) Reintroduction as an ecosystem restoration technique. Conserv Biol 25 (3) 424-424
Polunin O, Stainton A (1984) Flowers of the Himalaya. Oxford University Press Oxford India
Rakhlecha, P R, Kulkarni A K, Mandal B N and Dhar O N (1983) Winter and spring precipitation over the northwestern Himalaya. In Proceedings of the First National Symposium on Seasonal Snow Cover, New Delhi 2 175-181
Rana M S (2007) Assessment of floristic diversity and conservation prioritization of communities for conservation in Manali Wildlife Sanctuary of Himachal Pradesh in Northwestern Himalaya, Ph.D. Thesis, Kumaun University, Nainital, India
Rana M S and Samant S S (2010) Threat categorisation and conservation prioritisation of floristic diversity in the Indian Himalayan region: A state of art approach from Manali Wildlife Sanctuary. J Nat Conserv 18 (3) 159-168
Rana M S and Samant S S (2011a) Diversity, Indigenous uses and conservation status of Medicinal plants in Manali Wildlife Sanctuary, Northwestern Himalaya. Indian J Tradit Know 10 (3) 439-459
Rana M S and Samant S S (2011b) Population biology of Liliumpolyphyllum D. Don ex Royle—A critically endangered medicinal plant in a protected area of Northwestern Himalaya. J Nat Conserv 19 (3)137-142
Rani S, Rana J C and Rana P K 2013 Ethnomedicinal plants of Chamba district, Himachal Pradesh, India. J Med Plants Res 7 (42) 3147-3157
Ray R, Gururaja K V and Ramchandra T V (2011) Predictive distribution modeling for rare Himalayan medicinal plant Berberis aristata DC. J Environ Biol 32 (6) 725-730
Rodríguez-Salinas P, Riosmena-Rodríguez R, Hinojosa-Arango G and Muñiz-Salazar R (2010) Restoration experiment of Zostera marina L. in a subtropical coastal lagoon. Ecol Eng 36 (1)12-18
Samant S S (1998) Diversity, distribution and conservation of fodder resource of west Himalaya, India. Proceedings of the Third Temperate Pasture and Fodder Network (TAPAFON), Pokhra, Nepal, sponsored by FAO Rome, pp 109-128
Samant S S (2015) Assessment, valuation and conservation prioritization of floristic diversity in the trans, north west and west Himalaya, D.Sc. Thesis, Department of Botany, Kumaun University, Nainital, India
Samant S S and Dhar U (1997) Diversity, Endemism and Economic Potential of Wild Edible Plants of Indian Himalaya. In J Sust Dev World 4 179-191
Samant S S and Lal M (2015) Diversity, distribution, Ecological Niche Modeling and economic importance of Bamboo species in North Western and Western Himalaya. In Hill Bamboos: An important resource for improving rural livelihoods (Eds. Tewari V P, Verma R K and Goraya G S). Himalayan Forest Research Institute Shimla pp 1 - 20
Samant S S, Dhar U and Palni L M S (1998a) Medicinal plants of Indian Himalaya, Diversity distribution potential value. Gyanodaya Prakashan Nainital Uttaranchal India, pp 155-158
Samant S S, Dhar U and Rawal R S (1996) Natural resources use by some natives of Nanda Devi Biosphere Reserve in West Himalaya. In Proceeding of IV International Congress of Ethnobiology 8 40-50
Samant S S, Dhar U and Rawal R S (1998b) Biodiversity status of a protected area of west Himalaya. 1-Askot Wildlife Sanctuary. Int J Sust Dev World 5 194-203
Samant S S and Joshi H C (2004) Floristic diversity, community pattern and changes of vegetation in Nanda Devi National Park. In: Biodiversity Monitoring Expedition, Nanda Devi 2003 (18 June to 8 July, 2003), Uttaranchal Forest Department Dehradun. pp.39-54
Samant S S, Joshi H C, Arya S C and Pant S (2002) Studies on the structure, composition and changes of the vegetation in Nanda Devi Biosphere Reserve of West Himalaya -Final Technical Report Submitted to Ministry of Environment and Forests, New Delhi, India
Samant S S, Singh M, Lal M and Pant S (2007) Diversity, utilization pattern and prioritization of fodder species for conservation in Kullu district, Northwestern Himalaya, India. J Mt Sci 4 (3) 259-274
Saqib Z and Sultan A (2005) Ethnobotany of Palas valley, Pakistan. Ethnobot Leaflets 2005 (1) 1350-1357
Sharma A (2008) Studies on Floristic diversity and prioritization of communities for conservation in Hirb and Shoja Catchments, District Kullu of Himachal Pradesh, North Western Himalaya, Ph.D. Thesis, Kumaun University, Nainital, India
Sharma P (2013) Ecological assessment of floristic diversity and possible impacts of hydropower projects in Kullu district of Himachal Pradesh, North Western Himalaya, Ph.D. Thesis, Kumaun University Nainital, India
Singh A, Lal M and Samant S S (2009) Diversity, indigenous uses and conservation prioritization of medicinal plants in Lahaul valley, proposed Cold Desert Biosphere Reserve, India. Int J Biodivers Sci Manage 5 (3) 132-154
Singh M (2013) Predictive modelling of the distribution of two critically endangered Dipterocarp trees: Implications for conservation of riparian forests in Borneo. J Ecol Nat Environ 5 (9) 254-259
Singh S K and Rawat G S (1999) Floral diversity and vegetation structure in great Himalayan national park, western Himalaya. Wildlife Institute of India Dehra Dun
Thuiller W, Richardson D M, Pysek P, Midgley G F, Hughes G O and Rouget M (2005) Niche based modelling as a tool for predicting the risk of alien plant invasions at a global scale. Global Change Biol 11 (12) 2234-2250
Vikram S R (2014) Indigenous uses of medicinal and edible plants of Nanda Devi biosphere reserve-a review based on previous studies. Glob J Res Med Plants Indig Med 3 (2) 57-66
Wisz, M S, Hijmans R J, Li J, Peterson A T, Graham C H and Guisan A (2008) Effects of sample size on the performance of species distribution models. Diversity and Distributions 14 (5) 763-773
Yang X Q, Kushwaha S P S, Saran S, Xu J and Roy P S (2013) Maxentmodeling for predicting the potential distribution of medicinal plant, Justicia adhatoda L. in Lesser Himalayan foothills. Ecol Eng 51 83-87
Zai X, Qin P, Wan S, Zhao F, Wang G and Yan D (2009) The application of beach plum (Prunus maritima) to wasteland vegetation recovery in Jiangsu Province, China: seedling cloning and transplantation. Ecol Eng 35 (4) 591-596
Research Papers